Definition: A wound (lat. Vulnus) is a physical damage to living tissue that affects the skin
or mucosa, and depending on the mechanism of injury may penetrate deeper layers of tissue to varying degrees.
According to the mechanism of formation, the action of mechanical force, wounds are divided into:
Crushing - wounds caused by falling from a height or hitting a blunt mechanical object or weapon. It is characterized by an irregular shape with hemorrhages.
Scratches - wounds in which only the superficial layer of the skin (epidermis) has been damaged, while the deeper layers of the skin (dermis) have been preserved.
Torn - caused by the action of a blunt or sharp object or a fall from a height, that is, by the action of a force stronger than the elasticity of the skin, which leads to stratification of individual layers of skin, irregular edges of uneven bottom with frequent signs of infection.
Crushing-tearing wound - is a combination of a crushing wound and a laceration, caused by falling from a height, the action of a blunt or sharp object or weapon. This type of wound can also occur with open bone fractures.
A cut, a cut wound caused by the action of the blade of a hard object (knife, razor, razor). The wound has a regular shape, sharp straight edges, an oval cavity and muscle structures can be seen at the bottom of the wound. Due to their shape, they heal properly and are rarely complicated by infections.
Stab wound - is caused by the action of sharp pointed objects (awl, nail, dagger, horn). The opening on the skin is dotted while the puncture canal is very deep and can extend to deeper tissue structures e.g. muscle. If the object passed through the entire tissue or body structure and came out on the opposite side, we are talking about a puncture wound. Complications occur if there is a penetration into a body cavity.
Uniform wound - occurs by deep penetration of the teeth of an animal or human, very suitable for the development of microorganisms and the occurrence of infection, and the shape of the wound depends on the tooth with which it was inflicted. So we distinguish between human bite, dog bite, cat bite, snake bite, etc.
A dog bite
A gunshot wound - is caused by the action of a firearm (rifle, pistol, etc.). We distinguish the opening of a shot wound, which can be of different shapes from point to star, depending on the type of projectile and its distance from which it was fired, the firing channel and the bottom of the wound in which the projectile is located. If the mechanical force of the projectile is strong enough to penetrate to the opposite side of the body then we have an exit opening or a shot, and such a wound is called a gunshot wound.
Types of wounds according to skin condition:
Closed wound - is characterized by the preservation of the integrity (integrity) of the skin, but with signs of damage to deeper layers of tissue.
An open wound is characterized by a break in the integrity (integrity) of the skin, so that the wound comes into contact with the external environment.
A puncture wound is a wound that penetrates an organ or body cavity.
A subcutaneous wound is a wound that affects only the skin and subcutaneous tissue.
First aid for closed injuries
⦁ Assess the state of consciousness, if the patient is conscious, place him in an adequate position, depending on the location of the injury with minimal displacement so as not to cause secondary damage.
⦁ If you suspect an injury to the neck, spine, fracture of the femur, do not move the injured person in any way.
⦁ Immobilize injured limb (sprained joint, broken bone)
⦁ Place the immobilized limb in the elevation position - placing the injured limb above the level of the heart.
⦁ Monitor the general condition of the patient, monitor vital parameters, observe skin color, respiration, monitor the state of consciousness, pulse. If we are able to measure the pressure.
First aid for open injuries
⦁ Free the wound from clothing (cut clothing by suture)
⦁ Stop the bleeding (temporary hemostasis) by digital compression - by pressing on the blood vessel above the site of the injury, which has a strong support - bone.
⦁ If you have first aid at hand, cover the wound with sterile gauze or a first bandage, and then a compression bandage to stop the bleeding.
⦁ Immobilize the injured limb, place it in the elevation position.
⦁ Call an ambulance or, if the injury is minor, transport the injured person to the nearest medical facility
⦁ If we have the presence of a foreign body in the wound (knife, screwdriver, etc.), do not remove the foreign body. A foreign body should provide, ie. immobilize by preventing its movement, cover with sterile gauze, immobilize the injured limb.