Allergy is an unusual and inappropriate response of the organism to various environmental factors. It manifests as a reaction to environmental factors such as pollen or dust, which are called antigens or allergens. The symptoms of an allergic reaction vary considerably in speed and intensity. Sometimes localized and general symptoms can develop so quickly that they are life-threatening


    Amputations are injuries in which a part of the body separates. These injuries are serious and potentially life-threatening. The amputated part of the body, depending on the injury, can sometimes be joined (replanted). The success of replantation depends on adequate first aid and speed of transport to the appropriate health facility. Under optimal conditions, amputated fingers can be replanted at the latest


    SCA (sudden cardiac arrest) sudden cardiac arrest most commonly associated with ventricular fibrillation (VF) is the leading cause of sudden unexpected death in the world. The survival of people who have experienced sudden cardiac arrest decreases by 7-10% with each minute, so that the survival after 12 minutes is less than 5%. The most common cause of sudden cardiac arrest is ventricular fibrillation


    Epilepsy is a term that encompasses a wide range of brain disorders that are manifested by continuous outbursts of brain activity - seizures. Approximately 1 in 10 people can have an attack in their lifetime. This means that this is a common phenomenon that everyone can encounter and maybe you will be in a situation where you need help


    IMOBILIZACIJA Imobilizacija predstavlja sprečavanje pokretljivosti dijela tijela kod kojeg sumnjamo da je došlo do prijeloma, tj. frakture kosti. Na ovaj način ozlijeđeni dio tijela se stavlja u stanje mirovanja, a cilj je spriječiti pogoršanje povrede i pojavu dodatne boli. Imobilizaciju koristimo kod prijeloma ili sumnje na prijelom kosti, opsežnih rana ili opekotina, smrzotina, zmijskog ugriza


    SUDDEN LOSS OF CONSCIOUSNESS Many diseases and conditions can lead to loss of consciousness, some of which are harmless (eg a transient drop in blood pressure) and some very severe (eg heart failure, head injury, increased blood loss, poisoning, heat stroke, hypothermia, drowning, electric shock, sudden illness, etc.). The depth of the unconscious state can be different and the code can change


    WHEN TO CALL AN EMERGENCY MEDICINE Emergency medical care - HMP Emergency medical care (HMP) means emergency medical care of persons whose life, individual organ or body parts are directly endangered due to illness, suffering or injury - or who could be life-threatening in a short time - in order to minimize the time from occurrence


    BLEEDING AND STOPPING BLEEDING The term "bleeding" is the outflow of blood from arteries, veins or capillaries. Bleeding can be external (visible) or internal (hidden). The body of the average adult contains 6 liters of blood. Blood loss greater than 10% cannot be compensated by the body and can cause SHOCK. In infants, the loss of 25-30 ml of blood can cause SHOCK. BLOOD LOSS IN


    NOSE BLEEDING WHAT IS EPISTAXA? Epistaxis is bleeding from the nose. Bleeding can be light to heavy, and its consequences range from mild discomfort to, less frequently, life-threatening bleeding. Swallowed blood irritates the stomach, so patients may describe vomiting blood. Epistaxis can be divided into two categories, anterior and posterior, depending on the part


    STROKE Stroke is the third leading cause of death and is the leading cause of long-term disability despite advances in prevention, diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation. The social and economic consequences of stroke represent a burden for the patient, for society in terms of premature death, long-term disability, restrictions on social functions, the cost of care and loss of productivity. Recent data show


    NARGILA !!! What is a hookah? It is a smoking instrument designed so that chilled tobacco smoke that is flavored with the addition of some dried fruit or aromas of some plants passes through water or another liquid and further through the flexible hose reaches the one who uses it. Hookah smoke is created by burning coal with a flame that


    NIZAK ŠEĆER U KRVI Kroz različite namirnice u ishrani tjestenina, hljeb, peciva, riža, voće, povrće, mliječni proizvodi, zadovoljava se potreba organizma za ugljikohidratima, koje tijelo dalje probavom razgrađuje do molekula šećera. Jedna od tih molekula šećera je glukoza koja se nakon obroka apsorbira u krvotok. Za ulazak glukoze u stanice različitih tkiva odgovoran je hormon inzulin, dok nivo šećera


    BURNS Burns are injuries caused by the action of excessive heat by an agent in any physical state. They are one of the most common household injuries, especially among children. Most people can recover without serious health consequences, depending on the cause and degree of the burn. More serious burns require urgent medical attention to avoid complications as well


    BASIC APPROACH TO THE ACCIDENT In order to assess the patient's condition and determine what kind of help is needed, we approach the basic examination of the injured: 1. Safety 2. Checking the state of consciousness 3. We follow the CAB-D scheme C-circulation A-airway B -breathing D-defibrillation, use of AED (automatic external defibrillator) The basic approach is universal for all first aid victims, and


    RESUSCITATION IN ADULTS What is cardiac arrest? Cardiac arrest is a condition in which the heart stops working, leading to loss of consciousness, cessation of breathing and circulation. Remember early recognition of cardiac arrest and early onset of compression increases the survival rate. To assess the patient, use the basic approach to the casualty already described. What is resuscitation, cardiopulmonary resuscitation - CPR?


    COOLING Hypothermia or hypothermia is a condition of low general body temperature, which occurs when the body loses more heat than it can produce. Body temperature drops below 35 degrees. Hypothermia is most common during cold weather or when immersed in cold water, a strong flow of cold air also contributes to its formation, but it can also develop in warm weather,


    RISE BODY TEMPERATURE For a normal metabolism, a constant temperature is needed - homeotherm. The average body temperature ranges from 36.5 to 37.0 degrees Celsius. Temperature is regulated by monitoring metabolism and heat exchange with the environment. The thermoregulatory center is located in the hypothalamus, it responds to changes in temperature with either increased production or increased release in order to restore


      Abdominal injuries are one of the most common conditions we see in the practice of emergency medicine. Within injuries, it is very important to distinguish the following terms: -mechanism of injury -clinical picture -main treatment of injury and consequences if not treated in time The mechanism of injury describes the manner in which the injury occurred. According to the type of force acting on a particular surface,


    EXTREME INJURIES Involves physical damage to the arms and legs due to the action of some external energy, which has disrupted the continuity of the skin, subcutaneous tissue, muscles, nerves, blood vessels and the bone itself. There are several divisions, depending on the mode of origin and the type of action of external forces. ⦁ Intentional (self-harm and injury by another person) ⦁ Unintentional ⦁ Mechanical (sports,


    HEAD INJURIES Head injuries are common in everyday life, and according to the data, they are the leading cause of disability and death in the injured. Head injuries most often occur in traffic accidents, falls from heights, falls on hard or sharp surfaces, falls down stairs, in fights, in direct blows to the head, falls of heavy objects on the head, in sports activities,


    CHEST INJURIES The chest is a bone-cartilage cage that contains and protects the organs of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Due to its large surface area, it is extremely exposed to external forces and is often affected by various types of injuries. Chest injuries can be classified into two major groups: closed (blunt) and open injuries. There are no closed injuries


    SPINE INJURIES The spine is the main axis of the body to which all the bones of the body are directly or indirectly connected, and it is also the protective armor of the spinal cord. The spinal cord is made up of bundles of nerve fibers, which are built of ascending and descending nerve pathways. These nerve pathways connect the brain to all parts of the body. In addition, the spinal cord is the seat of the reflex, as


    Types of injuries, mechanism and first aid to victims of mines and other explosive devices The pattern of injuries caused by mines and other explosive devices is extremely complex. It depends on the structure of the explosive, the amount of explosives, the method of administration, as well as the distance between the accident and the explosive wave. For this reason, injuries caused by an explosive device require a unique triage


    FRACTURES A fracture or fracture of a bone is an associated mechanical injury characterized by soft tissue damage, disruption of bone or cartilage continuity. Fractures are caused by an external force, strong enough to overcome the level of physiological elasticity of bone or cartilage and lead to disruption of bone flow. Fractures can be: Closed fracture: ⦁ Inability to initiate an injured extremity, ⦁ Swelling at the fracture site is not always present. ⦁


    Predsjednik Zdravstvenog savjeta Općine Centar                          Dr. med.Salko Pašović, Spec. opšte hirurgije Poštovani sugrađani, u proteklih više od šest mjeseci, svjedočimo pandemiji COVID-19, koja je u mnogome uticala na Svijet i izazvalo globalnu pandemiju kao zdravstveni problem, sa utjecajem na druge sfere društva i


    DIARRHEA AND VOMITING IN CHILDREN Vomiting is the expulsion of gastric contents and is usually preceded by nausea. Vomiting usually starts suddenly and stops after 24 to 48 hours. Other signs of acute intestinal virus include nausea, diarrhea, fever, and abdominal pain. Vomiting in children is a very important and delicate sign, especially in the period of newborns, infants and


    ADULT DIARRHEA It is considered to have diarrhea if you have three or more watery stools during the day. Diarrhea is often accompanied by abdominal pain and cramps, nausea, fever, mucus in the stool, and a sudden rapid need to empty the bowels. It is important to know your body, listen to what it tells you and understand that


    FIRST AID First aid is a set of measures, procedures and activities carried out by a person who is the first to provide assistance to an injured person immediately after an injury or sudden illness. It is only the first step in the chain of saving the life of an endangered person at the very place of injury or illness (house, work or public place, etc.), and precedes what


    WOUNDS Definition: A wound (lat. Vulnus) is a physical damage to living tissue, which affects the skin or mucous membranes, and depending on the mechanism of injury can penetrate into deeper layers of tissue to varying degrees. According to the mechanism of formation, the action of mechanical force, wounds are divided into: Crushing - wounds caused by falling from a height or hitting a blunt mechanical object or weapon. Characterizes


    BABY RESUSCITATION Basic baby resuscitation procedures include initial assessment, initiation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and activation of emergency medical care. Basic baby resuscitation procedures are performed by either trained lay people or medical staff. Cardiac arrest in infants is most often caused by respiratory failure, in contrast to adults in whom the most common cause is ischemic cardiovascular disease. Resuscitation of babies, as in children


    CHILD RESUSCITATION Although pediatric resuscitation is very similar to adult resuscitation, rescuers should begin CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) before calling an ambulance. If you are the only person present and if you need to make a decision between starting CPR and calling 124 - start CPR! Children are more resilient than adults and their chances of survival


    FREEZES Frostbite is an injury caused by low temperatures. They most commonly occur on protruding parts of the body (toes and hands, earlobes, nose and chin). Tight and damp footwear and general exhaustion promote their formation. They often occur with general hypothermia. As with burns, the size of the frozen surface is important for further prognosis and treatment,


    HEART ATTACK A heart attack is a condition that occurs after the blood vessels that supply the heart muscle with blood become blocked. The heart has two such blood vessels-arteries. Clogging of one of them leads to a heart attack, If both are clogged, instant death occurs. Risk factors for heart attack are: male gender, immobility, smoking, diet, obesity. The condition is manifesting


    FOREIGN BODY Eye Most often, a foreign body is found in the eye after grinding metal. Patients generally feel when a foreign body reaches the eye, in very rare cases they do not give this information. The main symptoms are a feeling of the presence of a foreign body in the eye, a feeling of "tingling" and increased tearing. Pain and disturbances in the visual field occur less frequently. Ear


    HEAT SHOCK Heat stroke is a life-threatening condition that occurs when the mechanisms that maintain body temperature are no longer able to do so. There are two forms of heat stroke: classic heat stroke and heat stroke due to physical exertion. The classic type occurs during the summer when people spend some time in an environment with high temperature or high humidity. This one


    CARBON MONOXIDE POISONING Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is the most common of all poisoning caused by inhalation of toxic gases. Carbon monoxide is a colorless gas, odorless and tasteless, that does not irritate the mucous membranes - which makes it virtually invisible until it is too late, and is often called the "silent killer". Sources of carbon monoxide are incomplete fuel combustion, use


    INSECT BITS Insects are the most numerous and diverse group of animal species on Earth. Of the numerous insects, only a small number of them cause health problems in humans, whether they serve as carriers of certain diseases (mosquitoes, flies, lice, ticks,…), or cause allergic reactions (bees, wasps, hornets,…). As with all other diseases, the motto is: Prevent better


    TICK STICK Ticks are a diverse animal species that needs a host for its developmental cycle. The tick can be hosted by an animal or a human. By attaching (stabbing) an animal or human, the tick takes its blood meal, which it needs for its life cycle. The tick lives for about 3 years and takes only three blood meals in those three years.


    LIGHTNING SHOCK Lightning strike (fulguratio) occurs due to a sudden and strong discharge of electricity between the clouds and the ground. In essence, it is a direct current shock of enormous energy. Lightning strikes can be direct or indirect. Direct usually occurs when a person carries metal objects outdoors during thunderstorms while indirect most commonly occurs when direct current


    DISTORIATION Sprain (lat. Distorsio) means injuries to the joints, most likely due to inappropriate movements that cause the joint to move the joint out of its socket. The most commonly affected joints are the knee, fingers, wrist and ankle. The structures affected by the sprain are called ligaments. Symptoms The severity of pain due to sprains depends on the degree of stretching or rupture of the ligament. In mild sprains (first degree) ligaments


    DOG AND CAT WOUND WOUNDS By their nature include: Smaller wounds Rarely infected Rarely require surgical suturing First aid for single wounds: Rinsing the wound under running water (for small wounds, wash with mild soap) to remove saliva and dirt Do not remove foreign bodies inside the wound (allowing the wound to be further


    INTERNAL BLEEDING INTERNAL BLEEDING WITH BLOOD OUT OF BODY HOLE Bleeding in the lungs - the patient coughs up light, frothy blood Bleeding in the esophagus, stomach or duodenum - the patient vomits dark red or black blood, which often looks like blood. Bleeding in the intestines - fresh red blood rectally, bloody stools


    YOUR HANDS CAN SAVE SOMEONE'S LIFE The importance of starting resuscitation early Recognizing sudden cardiac arrest and starting early first aid with the right approach to the victim, checking the state of consciousness, pulse and breathing, and taking emergency resuscitation measures, the number of rescued can rise to almost two. Therefore, it is recommended to take the "Basic Maintenance" courses


    President of the Health Council of the Municipality of Centar Dr. med.Salko Pasovic, Spec. general surgery Dear fellow citizens, in the past more than six months, we are witnessing the COVID-19 pandemic, which has greatly affected the world and caused a global pandemic as a health problem, affecting other spheres of society and life such as education, information technology sector, economy, tourism, catering, traffic